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Eurové bankovky

Mýtus o Európe

Do niektorých ochranných prvkov nových eurových bankoviek bol zakomponovaný portrét Európy, postavy z gréckej mytológie. Nová séria eurových bankoviek preto dostala názov „Európa“. Poznáte mýtus o únose Európy? Viete, prečo bol vybratý práve jej portrét a odkiaľ vlastne pochádza? Tu sa to dozviete.


Mýtus o Európe

V gréckej mytológii Európu, dcéru fenického kráľa, zviedol boh Zeus v podobe býka a uniesol ju na Krétu. Starovekí Gréci sa týmto príbehom nechali inšpirovať a začali „Európu“ používať ako zemepisný pojem.

 

Výber portrétu

Na celom svete sú portréty tradičným motívom bankoviek. Výskum ukazuje, že ľudia tváre rozpoznávajú intuitívne. V prípade nových eurových bankoviek bol portrét Európy zvolený pre jeho očividnú spojitosť s európskym kontinentom, pričom bankovky zároveň vďaka nemu získavajú „ľudský rozmer“. Tento konkrétny obraz Európy bol prevzatý z vázy starej viac ako 2 000 rokov, ktorá bola nájdená v južnom Taliansku a v súčasnosti je vystavená v parížskom múzeu Louvre.

 

Európa – nová tvár eura

Zistite, ako sa Európa stala novou tvárou eura a pozrite si zblízka starožitnú vázu vystavenú v múzeu Louvre, z ktorej bol prevzatý jej portrét. 


 

Červenofigúrový krátér zvonového tvaru

  • Autor malieb: Iliupersis

  • Apúlia, okolo roku 360 pred n. l.

  • Dielňa: Taranto

  • Strana A: Európa a Zeus v podobe býka

  • Strana B: Dionýzos, menáda a satyr

Prečo sa postava zobrazená na váze stala jedným z európskych symbolov? Predovšetkým pre inovatívnu ikonografiu, ktorá vyjadruje príbeh lásky Dia a Európy.

Na rozdiel od mnohých umelcov sa maliar nezameral na únos Európy Diom prevteleným do býka, ale na scénu zvedenia Európy, ktorá únosu predchádzala. Bohyňa lásky Afrodita a jej syn Eros zaraďujú túto epizódu do repertoáru galantnej mytológie. Očividná je zvodnosť Európy, ktorá je okrášlená šperkami a ktorej obraz sa odráža vo vodách neďalekého jazierka, ako aj gesto obdivu mohutného žiarivo bieleho býka, ako sa uvádza v básňach. Toto je obraz zvodnej Európy.

 
Zložitá história vázy okrem toho dokonale odráža kultúrnu výmenu, ktorá je základom európskej identity. Váza bola vytvorená v druhej štvrtine 4. storočia pred n. l. v zmiešanom kultúrnom prostredí v oblasti Taranto v južnom Taliansku, kde žili Gréci spolu s pôvodnými obyvateľmi tohto regiónu. Grécky pôvod zdôrazňuje význam antiky vo vytváraní spoločnej kultúry. Vázu vyhotovenú gréckym remeselníkom v južnom Taliansku zakúpilo začiatkom 19. storočia múzeum Louvre, kde sa váza nachádza dodnes.


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